Full Text:  <971>

CLC number: R655

On-line Access: 

Received: 2005-11-27

Revision Accepted: 2005-12-07

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 11

Clicked: 2292

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNOte GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2006 Vol.7 No.2 P.118~128

doi: 10.1631/jzus.2006.B0118

Video-assisted thoracic surgery―the past, present status and the future

Author(s):  Luh Shi-ping, Liu Hui-ping

Affiliation(s):  1.Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Taipei Tzu-Chi Medical University Hospital, Taiwan 231, China; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan 231, China

Corresponding email(s):  luh572001@yahoo.com.tw

Key Words:  Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), Pneumothorax, Empyema, Lung cancer, Esophagus, Mediastinum

Share this article to? More

Luh Shi-ping, Liu Hui-ping. Video-assisted thoracic surgery―the past, present status and the future[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2006, 6(7): 118~128.

title="Video-assisted thoracic surgery―the past, present status and the future",
author="Luh Shi-ping, Liu Hui-ping",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Video-assisted thoracic surgery―the past, present status and the future
%A Luh Shi-ping
%A Liu Hui-ping
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 7
%N 6
%P 118~128
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2006
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer

T1 - Video-assisted thoracic surgery―the past, present status and the future
A1 - Luh Shi-ping
A1 - Liu Hui-ping
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 7
IS - 6
SP - 0
EP - 0
SN - 1673-565X
Y1 - 2006
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -

video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has developed very rapidly in these two decades, and has replaced conventional open thoracotomy as a standard procedure for some simple thoracic operations as well as an option or a complementary procedure for some other more complex operations. In this paper we will review its development history, the present status and the future perspectives.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Abdala, O.A., Levy, R.R., Tibiloni, R.H., Viso, H.D., de Souza, M., Satler, V.H., 2001. Advantages of video assisted thoracic surgery in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax. Medicina, 61:157-160.

[2] Akaishi, T., Kaneda, I., Higuchi, N., Higuchi, N., Kuriya, Y., Kuramoto, J., Toyoda, T., Wakabayashi, A., 1996. Thoracoscopic en bloc total esophagectomy with vertical mediastinal lymphadenectomy. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 112(6):1533-1541.

[3] Akaishi, T., Miyazaki, S., Miyata, G., 1997. Thoracoscopic Esophagectomy with Extended Mediastinal Lymphadenectomy as a Standard Surgical Treatment for Esophageal Cancer. In: Topuzlu, C., Tekant, Y. (Eds.), Joint Euro Asian Congress of Endoscopic Surgery. Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, p.7.

[4] Andrews, B.T., Rennie, J.A., 1997. Predicting changes in the distribution of sweating following thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Br. J. Surg., 84(12):1702-1704.

[5] Andrivet, O., Djedaini, K., Teboul, J.L., 1995. Spontaneous pneumothorax comparison of thoracic drainage vs immediate or delayed needle aspiration. Chest, 108:335-339.

[6] Aram, K.V., Grover, F.L., Richardson, J.D., 1997. Post traumatic empyema. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 23:254-258.

[7] Bardini, R., Segalin, A., Ruol, L.A., Pavanello, M., Peracchia, A., 1992. Videothoracoscopic enucleation of esophageal leiomyoma. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 54:576.

[8] Bartek, J.P., Grasch, A., Hazelrigg, S.R., 1996. Thoracoscopic retrieval of foreign bodies after penetrating injuries of the thorax. Dis. Chest, 12:330-335.

[9] Bayes, A.J., Wilson, J.A.S., Chiu, R.C.J., 1987. Clagett open window thoracostomy in patients with empyema who had and had not undergone pneumonectomy. Can. J. Surg., 30:329-331.

[10] Belani, C., Pajean, T., Bennett, C., 1998. Treating malignant pleural effusions cost consciously. Chest, 113:78S-85S.

[11] Berber, E., Siperstein, A.E., 2001. Understanding and optimizing laparoscopic videosystems. Surg. Endosc., 15(8):781-787.

[12] Bouros, D., Antoniou, K.M., Chalkiadakis, G., Drositis, J., Petrakis, I., Siafakas, N., 2002. The role of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in the treatment of parapneumonic empyema after the failure of fibrinolytics. Surg. Endosc., 16(1):151-154.

[13] Bousamra, M., Hassler, G.B., Patterson, G.A., Roper, C.L., 1996. A comparative study of thoracoscopic vs open removal of benign neurogenic mediastinal tumors. Chest, 109:1461.

[14] Burrows, C., Mathews, C., Colt, H., 2000. Predicting survival in patients with recurrent symptomatic malignant pleural effusions. Chest, 117(1):73-78.

[15] Byrne, J., Walsh, T.N., Hederman, W.P., 1993. Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy. In: Gossot, D. (Ed.), Surgical Thoracoscopy. Springer, New York, p.93-98.

[16] Cardillo, G., Facciolo, F., Giunti, R., Gasparri, R., Copergolo, M., Orsetti, R., Martelli, M., 2000. Videothoracoscopic treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax: a 6-year experience. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 69(2):357-362.

[17] Casadio, C., Rena, O., Giobbe, R., Rigoni, R., Maggi, G., Oliaro, A., 2002. Stapler blebectomy and pleural abrasion by video-assisted thoracoscopy for spontaneous pneumothorax. J. Cardiovasc. Surg., 43:259-262.

[18] Colice, G.L., Curtis, A., Deslauriers, J., Heffner, J., Light, R., Littenberg, B., Sahn, S., Weinstein, K.A., Yusen, R.D., 2000. Medical and surgical treatment of parapneumonic effusions. An evidence-based guideline. Chest, 118(4):1158-1171.

[19] Collard, J.M., Lengele, B., Otte, J.B., Kestens, P.J., 1993. En bloc and standard esophagectomies by thoracoscopy. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 56:675-679.

[20] Cooper, J.D., AlJilahawa, A.N., Pearson, F.G., Humphrey, J.G., Humphrey, H.E., 1987. An improved technique to facilitate transcervical thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci., 505:595-606.

[21] Crisci, R., Coloni, G.F., 1996. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery versus thoracotomy for recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. A comparison of results and costs. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 10(7):556-560.

[22] Cuschieri, A., Shimi, S., Banting, S., 1992. Endoscopic oesophagectomy through a right thoracoscopic approach. J. R. Coll. Surg. Ednib., 37:7-11.

[23] Cutler, J.W., 1933. A technique and apparatus for intrapleural pneumolysis. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 28:528-536.

[24] Davies, C.W.H., Traill, Z.C., Gleeson, F.V., Davies, R.J.O., 1999. Intrapleural streptokinase in the management of malignant multiloculated pleural effusions. Chest, 115(3):729-733.

[25] DeCamp, M.M.Jr., Jakitsch, M.T., Mentzer, S.J., Harpole, D.H.Jr., Sugarhaker, D.J., 1995. The safety and versatility of video-thoracoscopy: a prospective analysis of 895 consecutive cases. J. Am. Coll. Surg., 181:113-120.

[26] Delp, S.L., Loan, P., Cagatay, B., Rosen, J., 1997. Surgical simulation, an emerging technology for training in emergency medicine. Presence, 6:147-159.

[27] DePaula, A.L., Hashiba, K., Ferreira, E.A.B., DePaula, R.A., Grecco, E., 1995. Thanshiatal Approach for Esophagectomy. In: Toouli, J., Gossot, D., Hunter, J.G. (Eds.), Endosurgery. Churbhill Livingstone, New York, p.293-299.

[28] Dexter, S.P., Martin, I.G., McMahon, M.J., 1996. Radical thoracoscopic esophagectomy for cancer. Surg. Endosc., 10(2):147-151.

[29] Drott, C., Claes, G., 1996. Hyperhidrosis treated by thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Cardiovasc. Surg., 4(6):788-791.

[30] Endo, C., Sagawa, M., Sakurada, A., Sato, M., Kondo, T., Fujimura, S., 2003. Surgical treatment of stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma. Annals. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 9:283-289.

[31] Erasmus, J., Patz, E., 1999. Treatment of malignant pleural effusions. Curr. Opin. Pulmon. Med., 5(4):250-255.

[32] Erasmus, J., Goodman, P., Patz, E., 2000. Management of malignant pleural effusions and pneumothorax. Radiol. Clin. North. Am., 38(2):375-383.

[33] Garcia-Rutz, A., Smediria, N.G., Loop, F.D., Hahn, J.F., Miller, J.H., Steiner, C.P., Gagner, M., 1997. Robotic surgical instruments for dexterity enhancement in thoracoscopic coronary arterial bypass graft. Laparoendosco. Adv. Surg. Tech., 7:5-7.

[34] Gates, R.L., Caniano, D.A., Hayes, J.R., Arca, M.J., 2004. Does VATS provide optimal treatment of empyema in children? A systemic review. J. Pediatr. Surg., 39(3):381-386.

[35] Gossot, D., Debiolles, H., Ghnassia, M.D., Chourrout, Y., Celerier, M., Revillon, Y., 1992. Surgery of the esophagus under thoracoscopy. Study of feasibility. Biol. Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol., 16:325-327.

[36] Gossot, D., Cattan, P., Fritsch, S., Halimi, B., Sarfati, E., Celerier, M., 1995. Can the morbidity of oesophagectomy be reduced by the thoracoscopic approach? Surg. Endosc., 9(10):1113-1115.

[37] Graeber, G.M., Jones, D.R., 1993. The role of thoracoscopy in thoracic trauma. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 56:646-648.

[38] Graham, D.D., McGahren, E.D., Tribble, C.G., Tribble, C.G., Daniel, T.M., Rodgers, B.M., 1994. Use of video-assisted thoracic surgery in the treatment of chylothorax. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 57:1507-1511.

[39] Gregoire, R., Deslauriers, J., Beaulieu, M., Piraux, M., 1987. Thoracoplasty: its forgotten role in the management of nontuberculous postpneumonectomy empyema. Can. J. Surg., 30:343-345.

[40] Hatz, R.A., Kaps, M.F., Meimarakis, G., Loehe, F., Muller, C., Fürst, H., 2000. Long term results after video assisted thoracoscopic surgery for first time and recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 70(1):253-257.

[41] Hazelrigg, S.R., Nunchuch, S.K., LoCicero, J., 1993a. Video assisted thoracic surgery study group data. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 56:1039-1044.

[42] Hazelrigg, S.R., Nunchuck, S.K., Landreneau, R.J., Mack, M.J., Maunheim, K.S., Seifert, P.E., Auer, J.E., 1993b. Cost analysis for thoracoscopy: thoracoscopic wedge resection. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 56:633-635.

[43] Heltzer, J.M., Krasna, M.J., Aldrich, F., McLaughlin, J.S., 1995. Thoracoscopic excision of a posterior mediastinal dumbbell tumor using combined approach. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 60(2):431.

[44] Heniford, B.T., Carillo, E.H., Spain, D.A., Sosa, J.L., Fulton, R.L., Richardson, J.D., 1997. The role of thoracoscopy in the management of retained thoracic collections after trauma. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 63(4):940-943.

[45] Herbst, F., Plas, E.G., Fugger, R., Fritsch, A., 1994. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for primary hyperhidrosis of the upper limbs. A critical analysis and long term results of 480 operations. Ann. Surg., 220:86-90.

[46] Hill, J.W., Holst, P.A., Jessen, J.F., Goldman, J., Gorfu, Y., Ploeger, D.W., 1998. Telepresence interface with applications to microsurgery and surgical simulation. Stud. Health Technol. Inform., 50:90-102.

[47] Hoover, E.L., Hsu, H.K., Ross, M.J., 1986. Reappraisal of empyema thoracis: surgical intervention when the duration of illness is unknown. Chest, 90:511-515.

[48] Horio, H., Nomori, H., Kobayashi, R., Naruke, T., Suemasu, K., 2002. Impact of additional pleurodesis in video-assisted thoracoscopic bullectomy for primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Surg. Endosc., 16:630-634.

[49] Hsieh, M.J., Liu, H.P., Wu, Y.C., Liu, Y.H., Lin, P.J., 2000. Catamenial hemoptysis: report of a case treated with thoracoscopic wedge resection. Chang Gung Med. J., 23:427-431.

[50] Hunter, J.G., Trus, T.L., Branum, G.D., Waring, J.P., 1997. Laparoscopic Heller myotomy and fundoplication for achalasia. Ann. Surg., 225(6):655-668.

[51] Jacco, A.C.Z., Henk, E.J., Sinninghe, D., Peter, J.H.S., 2000. Video-assisted thoracoscopic introduction of talc in the treatment of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. Eur. J. Surg., 166:283-285.

[52] Jacobaeus, H.C., 1910. Ueber die Moglichkeit die Zystoskopie bei Untersuchung seroser Honlungen anzuwenden. Munchen. Med. Wchenschr., 57:2090-2092.

[53] Jacobaeurs, H.C., 1923. The cauterization of adhesions in artificial pneumothorax treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis under thoracoscopic control. Arch. Radiol. Electrotherapy, 28:97-105.

[54] Jaretzki, A., Penn, A.S., Younger, D., Wolff, M., Olarte, M.R., Lovelace, R.E., Rowland, L.P., 1988. “Maximal” thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 95:747-757.

[55] Jones, J.W., Kitahama, A., Webb, W.R., McSwain, N., 1981. Emergency thoracoscopy: a logical approach to chest trauma management. J. Trauma., 21:280-284.

[56] Kaiser, C.R., Daniel, T.M., 1993. Thoracoscopic Surgery. Little Brown, Boston.

[57] Kaseda, S., Aoki, T., 2002. Video-assisted thoracic surgical lobectomy in conjunction with lymphadenectomy for lung cancer. J. Japan Surgical Society, 103:717-721.

[58] Kay, R., Lam, S., Wong, K.S., Wang, A., Ho, J., 1994. Responses to thymectomy in Chinese patients with myasthenia gravis. J. Neurol. Sci., 126(1):84-87.

[59] Kim, K.H., Kim, H.K., Han, J.Y., Kim, J.T., Wen, Y.S., Choi, S.S., 1996. Transaxillary minithoracotomy versus video-assisted thoracic surgery for spontaneous pneumothorax. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 61(5):1510-1512.

[60] Klena, J.W., Cameron, B.H., Langer, J.C., Winthrop, A.L., Perez, C.R., 1998. Timing of video-assisted thoracoscopic debridment for pediatric empyema. J. Am. Coll. Surg., 187(4):404-408.

[61] Ko, C.Y., Waters, P.F., 1998. Lung volume reduction surgery: a cost and outcomes comparison of sternotomy versus thoracoscopy. Ann. Surg., 64:1010-1013.

[62] Korom, S., Canyurt, H., Missbach, A., Schneiter, D., Kurrer, M.O., Haller, U., Keller, P.J., Furrer, M., Weder, W., 2004. Catamenial pneumothorax revisited: clinical approach and systemic review of the literature. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 128(4):502-508.

[63] Korst, R.J., Ginsberg, R.J., 2001. Appropriate surgical treatment of respectable non-small-cell lung cancer. World J. Surg., 25(2):184-188.

[64] Krasna, M.J., Mack, M.J., 1994. Atlas of Thoracoscopic Surgery. Quality Medical Publishing, St. Louis.

[65] Landreneau, R.J., Dowling, R.D., Castillo, W.M., Ferson, P.F., 1992a. Thoracoscopic resection of an anterior mediastinal tumor. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 54:142-144.

[66] Landreneau, R.J., Mack, M.J., Hazelrigg, S.R., Dowling, R.D., Acuff, T.E., Magee, M.J., Ferson, P.F., 1992b. Video-assisted thoracic surgery. Basic technical concepts and intercostals approach strategies. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 54:800-807.

[67] Landreneau, R.J., Keenan, R.J., Hazelrigg, S.R., 1995. Thoracoscopy for empyema and hemothorax. Chest, 109:18-24.

[68] Lang-Lazdunski, L., Mouroux, J., Pons, F., Grosdidier, G., Martinod, E., Elkaim, D., Azorin, J., Jancovici, R., 1997. The role of videothoracoscopy in the chest trauma. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 63(2):327-333.

[69] Lau, H., Cheng, S.W., 1997. Burger’s disease in Hong Kong: a review of 89 cases. Aust. NZ. Surg., 67:264-269.

[70] Law, S., Fok, M., Chu, K.M., Wong, J., 1997. Thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Surgery, 122(1):8-14.

[71] Lee, R.B., Miller, J.I., 1997. Esophagectomy for cancer. Surg. Clin. NA, 77:1169-1196.

[72] Lemmer, J.H., Botham, M.J., Orringer, M.B., 1987. Modern management of adult thoracic empyema. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 94:414-418.

[73] Lewis, R.J., Caccavale, R.J., Boccage, J.P., Widmann, M.D., 1999. Video assisted thoracic surgical non-rib spreading simultaneously stapled lobectomy. Chest, 116(4):1119-1124.

[74] Light, R.W., 2000. Management of pleural effusions. J. Formos. Med. Assoc., 99:523-531.

[75] Liu, H.P., Chang, C.H., Lin, P.J., Hsieh, M.J., 1997a. Thoracoscopic loop ligation of parenchymal blebs and bullae: is it effective and safe? J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 113(1):50-54.

[76] Liu, D.W., Liu, H.P., Lin, P.J., Chang, C.H., 1997b. Video-assisted thoracic surgery in treatment of chest trauma. J. Trauma., 42:670-674.

[77] Liu, H.P., Yim, A.P., Izzat, M.B., Lin, P.J., Chang, C.H., 1999. Thoracoscopic surgery for spontaneous pneumothorax. World J. Surg., 23(11):1133-1136.

[78] Liu, H.P., Yim, A.P., Wan, J., Chen, H., Wu, Y.C., Liu, Y.H., Lin, P.J., Chang, C.H., 2000a. Thoracoscopic removal of intrathoracic neurogenic tumors: a combined Chinese experience. Ann. Surg., 232:187-190.

[79] Liu, H.P., Wu, Y.C., Liu, Y.H., Hsieh, M.J., Cheng, K.S., Chu, J.J., Lin, P.J., 2000b. Cost-effective approach of video-assisted thoracic surgery: 7 years experience. Chung Gung Med. J., 23:405-412.

[80] Liu, H.P., Hsieh, M.J., Lu, H.I., Liu, Y.H., Wu, Y.C., Lin, P.J., 2002. Thoracoscopic-assisted management of postpneumonic empyema in children refractory to medical response. Surg. Endosc., 16(11):1612-1614.

[81] Loubani, M., Lynch, V., 2000. Video assisted thoracoscopic bullectomy and acromycin pleurodesis: an effective treatment for spontaneous pneumothorax. Resp. Med., 94(9):888-890.

[82] Luh, S.P., Lee, Y.C., Lee, J.M., Lee, C.J., 1996. Videothoracoscopic treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax. Int. Surg., 81:336-338.

[83] Luh, S.P., Tsai, T.P., Chou, M.C., Yang, P.C., Lee, C.J., 2004. Video-assisted thoracic surgery for spontaneous pneumothorax : outcome of 189 cases. Int. Surg., 89:185-189.

[84] Luh, S.P., Chou, M.C., Wang, L.S., Chen, J.Y., Tsai, T.P., 2005. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in the treatment of complicated parapneumonic effusions or empyemas, outcome of 234 patients. Chest, 127(4):1427-1432.

[85] Luketich, J.D., Nguyen, N.T., Schauer, P.R., 1998a. Laparoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy for Barrett’s esophagus with high grade dysplasia. JSLS, 2:75-77.

[86] Luketich, J.D., Nguyen, N.T., Weigel, T.L., Ferson, P.F., Keenan, R.J., Schauer, P.R., 1998b. The role of laparoscopy and video assisted thoracoscopy in esophagectomy. Surg. Endosc., 12:554.

[87] Mack, M.J., Aronoff, R.J., Acuff, T.E., Douthit, M.B., Bowman, R.T., Ryan, W.H., 1992. Present role of thoracoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the chest. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 54:403-409.

[88] Mack, M.J., Landreneau, R.J., Yim, A.P., Hazelrigg, S.R., Scruggs, G.R., 1996. Results of VATS thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 112(5):1352-1360.

[89] Mandal, A.K., Thadepalli, H., 1987. Treatment of spontaneous bacterial empyema thoracis. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 94:414-418.

[90] Marthay, R.A., Coppage, L., Shaw, C., Filderman, A.E., 1990. Malignancies metastatic to the pleura. Invest. Radiol., 25:601-619.

[91] Martínez-Moragón, E., Aparicio, J., Sanchis, J., Menéndez, R., Cruz Rogado, M., Sanchis, F., 1998. Malignant pleural effusion: prognostic factors for survival and response to chemical pleurodesis in a series of 120 cases. Respiration, 65:108-113.

[92] McAnena, O.J., Rogers, J., Williams, N.S., 1994. Right thoracoscopically assisted oesophagectomy for cancer. Br. J. Surg., 81:236-238.

[93] Miller, D.L., 2002. Management of the subcentimeter pulmonary nodule. Seminars in Thoracic. & Cardiovasc. Surg., 14:281-285.

[94] Miller, D.L., Allen, M.S., Trastek, V.F., Deschamps, C., Pairolero, P.C., 1992. Videothoracoscopic wedge excision of the lung. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 54:410-414.

[95] Mineo, T.C., Pompeo, E., Ambrogi, V., Sabato, A.F., Bernardi, G., Casciani, C.U., 1996. Adjuvant pneumomediastinum in thoracoscopic thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 62(4):1210-1212.

[96] Mineo, T.C., Pompeo, E., Ambrogi, V., 1997. Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy: from the right or from the left? J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 114:517.

[97] Moffatt, S.D., Mitchell, J.D., Whyte, R.I., 2002. Role of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and classic thoracotomy in lung cancer management. Curr. Opin. Pul. Med., 8(4):281-286.

[98] Molin, L.J., Steinburg, J.B., Lanza, L.A., 1994. VATS increases costs in patients undergoing lung biopsy for interstitial lung disease. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 58:1595-1598.

[99] Mulder, D.S., 1993. Thoracoscopy in Europe: views from North America. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 56:731-733.

[100] Nagawa, H., Kobbori, O., Muto, T., 1994. Prediction of pulmonary complications after transthoracic oesophagectomy. Br. J. Surg., 81:860-862.

[101] Neild, J.E., Eykyn, S.J., Philips, L., 1985. Lung abscess and empyema. J. Med., 57:875-882.

[102] Nguyen, N.T., Schauer, R.R., Luketich, J.D., 1999. Combined laparoscopic and thoracoscopic approach to esophagectomy. J. Am. Coll. Surg., 188(3):328-332.

[103] Nomori, H., Horio, H., Naruke, T., Suemasu, K., 2001. What is the advantage of a thoracoscopic lobectomy over a limited thoracotomy procedure for lung cancer surgery? Ann. Thorac. Surg., 72(3):879-884.

[104] Noppen, M., Meysman, M., D’Hasse, J., Vincken, W., 1998. Thoracoscopic splanchnicolysis for the relief of chronic pancreatitis pain. Experience of a group og pneumonologists. Chest, 113:528-531.

[105] Parekh, K., Rusch, V., Bains, M., Downey, R., Ginsberg, R., 2001. VATS port site recurrence: a technique dependent problem. Ann. Surg. Oncol., 8:175-178.

[106] Patz, E.F., 1998. Malignant pleural effusions: recent advances and ambulatory sclerotherapy. Chest, 113:74S-77S.

[107] Pelligrini, C.A., Leichter, R., Paltti, M., Somberg, K., Ostroff, J.W., Way, L., 1993. Thoracoscopic esophageal myotomy in the treatment of achalasia. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 56:680-682.

[108] Pitcher, D.E., Curet, M.J., Martin, D.T., Castillo, R.R., Gerstenberger, P.D., Vogt, D.M., Zucker, K.A., 1994. Successful management of severe gastroesophageal reflux disease with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Am. J. Surg., 168(6):547-554.

[109] Playter, R., Raibert, M., 1997. A virtual surgery simulator using advanced haptic feedback. Min. Invas. Ther. Allied. Technol., 6:117-121.

[110] Ridley, P.D., Braimbridge, M.V., 1991. Thoracoscopic debridment and pleural irrigation in the management of empyema thoracis. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 51:461-464.

[111] Rivas, H., Cacchione, R., Allen, J.W., 2002. Understanding and optimizing laparoscopic videosystems. Surg. Endosc., 16(9):1376.

[112] Robertson, G.S., Lloyd, D.M., Wicks, A.C., Veitch, P.S., 1996. No obvious advantages for thoracoscopic tow stage esophagectomy. Br. J. Surg., 83:675-678.

[113] Russo, A., 2002. Video assisted surgery in oncology. From diagnostic application to therapeutic possibilities. Minerva Chirurgica, 57:607-623.

[114] Sahn, S.A., 1993. Management of complicated parapneumonic effusions. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 148:813-817.

[115] Sahn, S.A., 1998. Malignancy metastatic to the pleura. Clin. Chest Med., 19(2):351-361.

[116] Sataloff, D.M., Pursnani, K., Hoyo, S., Zayas, F., Lieber, C., Castell, D.O., 1997. An objective assessment of laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Am. J. Surg., 174(1):63.

[117] Satava, R.M., 1995. Visual reality and telepresence for military medicine. Comput. Biol. Med., 25(2):229-236.

[118] Schoenenberger, R.A., Haefeli, W.E., Weiss, P., Ritz, R.F., 1991. Timing of invasive procedure in therapy for primary and secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. Arch. Surg., 126:764-766.

[119] Schwaitzberg, S.D., 2001. Imaging systems in minimally invasive surgery. Semin. Laparosc. Surg., 8(1):3-11.

[120] Shimi, S., Nathanson, L.K., Cuschieri, A., 1991. Laparoscopic cardiomyotomy for achalasia. J. Coll. Surg. Edinb., 36:152-154.

[121] Sihoe, A.D., Yim, A.P., 2004. Lung cancer staging. J. Surg. Res., 117(1):92-106.

[122] Smith, R.S., Fry, W.R., Tsoi, E.K., Morabito, D.J., Koehler, R.H., Reinganum, S.J., Organ, C.H.Jr., 1993. Preliminary report on videothoracoscopy in the evaluation and treatment of thoracic injury. Am. J. Surg., 166:690-695.

[123] Solaini, L., Prusciano, F., Bagioni, P., DiFrancesco, F., BasilioPoddie, D., 2001. Video assisted thoracic surgery major pulmonary resections: present experience. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 20(3):437-442.

[124] Stammberger, U.Z., Steinacher, C., Hillinger, S., Schmid, R.A., Kinsberger, T., Weder, W., 2000. Early and long-term complaints following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: evaluation in 173 patients. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 18(1):7-11.

[125] Sugamura, Y., Ikari, H., Morino, S., Shigemasa, Y., Hatano, K., Shimizu, T., Kunizaki, T., 2002. Strategy for preventing recurrence after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for spontaneous pneumothorax. Efficacy of talc pleurodesis and absorbable mesh covering. Jpn. J. Thorac. Surg., 55:785-788.

[126] Sugi, K., Kaneda, Y., Nawata, K., Fujita, N., Ueda, K., Nawata, S., Esoto, K., 1998. Cost analysis for thoracoscopy: thoracoscopic wedge resection and lobectomy. Surg. Today, 28(1):41-45.

[127] Swanson, S.J., Batirel, H.F., 2002. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) resection for lung cancer. Surg. Clin. NA, 82(3):541-549.

[128] Toms, A.P., Tasker, A., Flower, C., 2000. Intervention in the pleura. Eur. J. Radiol., 34(2):119-132.

[129] van Schil, P., 2003. Cost analysis of video-assisted thoracic surgery versus thoracotomy: critical review. Eur. Respir. J., 22(5):735-738.

[130] Viskum, K., Enk, B., 1981. Complications of thoracoscopy. Poumon. Coeur., 37:25-28.

[131] Wang, P.S., Goldstraw, P., 1993. Pleuroperitoneal shunts: review. Br. J. Hosp. Med., 50:16-21.

[132] Whyte, R.I., 2001. Advances in the staging of intrathoracic malignancies. World J. Surg., 25(2):167-173.

[133] Wissberg, D., Ben-Zeev, I., 1993. Talc pleurodesis. Experiences with 360 patients. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 106:678-695.

[134] Wu, J.S., Dunnegan, D.L., Luttmann, D.R., Soper, N.J., 1996. The influence of surgical technique on clinical outcome of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Surg. Endosc., 10(12):1164-1170.

[135] Yim, A.P.C., 1997. Letter: thoracoscopic thymectomy: which side to approach? Ann. Thorac. Surg., 64:584.

[136] Yim, A.P.C., Kay, R.L.C., Ho, J.K.S., 1995. Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Chest, 109:1255-1256.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Tsai-ping Lee@Bureau of Health Promotion<glorialee531@gmail.com.tw>

2010-11-02 02:42:15

I think this paper is quiet complete and useful. Ecellent.

glorialee@Chia-Yi Hospital<gloria!@yahoo.com.tw>

2010-11-02 02:36:15

An excellent review about the PSP.
This will give me many information about the treatment of this disease.

Tsai-ping Lee@Bureau of Health Promotion<glorialee531@gamil.com>

2010-07-28 23:56:36

This article help the government to understand the progress of Video-assisted thoracic surgery, we could make a policy of Health Insurance as reference.

cammy@Department of Research and Teaching, St Martin De Porres Hospital<a2680789@stm.org.tw>

2010-07-28 11:19:09

This is one of the most significant report of the subject.

shu-jung chu@Department of Research and Teaching, St Martin De Porres Hospital<h102@stm.org.tw>

2010-07-28 11:12:41

a great job!!

fanghsiu@Department of Research and Teaching, St Martin De Porres Hospital<fanghsiu216@gmail.com>

2010-07-28 11:09:38

it's a clear report.

Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952276; Fax: +86-571-87952331; E-mail: jzus@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000~ Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE